Power Quality e-Knowledgebase

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PQ Definitions & Standardized Waveforms

PQ is like any other science—it’s based on well-developed definitions and standardized waveforms. As leaders in the PQ industry, Electrotek was instrumental in the development of many PQ definitions and standardized wave forms. Electrotek expert PQ engineers initiated and chaired the IEEE Working Group – name that developed the IEEE Standard 1159 – Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality. This standard has been the “hinge-pin” for establishing PQ definitions, disturbance waveforms, and the quantities that define the characteristics for the disturbances and phenomena that allow people to distinguish one type of disturbance from another.

Table 2 from the IEEE 1159 standards is shown below. This table defines seven categories of PQ phenomena as well as the spectral content (if applicable), duration and typical voltage magnitude including the range for each.


Without this standard, it would be impossible to distinguish between a voltage sag and a voltage swell. Engineers, researchers, and scientists as well as utility, manufacturing, building design, and end-user organizations must be able to discuss PQ topics and issues using industry-standardized language. This information also allows PQ monitoring manufacturers to standardize the detection and classification of PQ disturbances for voltage and current, as well as the PQ phenomena occurring when voltage and current deviates from normal.

Standardized PQ definitions can be found here, and standardized waveform disturbances can be found here ... read more

Read more about power quality and stay current with what Electrotek Concepts is working on. Read more about it at PQWire!

PQ Engineering Services Newsletter - PQWire

Given that PQ is only a 30-year-old industry with much to be learned by utilities, manufacturers, building designers, and end users, Electrotek is committed to publishing a month PQ Engineering Services Newsletter called PQWire.

PQWire, written by expert PQ engineers at Electrotek with guest authors from our sister company, Dranetz Technology, Inc. and other PQ-related organizations, provides our customers with the best PQ news in the industry. PQWire will include:

  • A section on PQStandards discussing the state of specific standards under development by the IEEE, IEC and other standards development bodies. An update on a specific standard will be featured each month.
  • A section on PQMitigation discussing a new PQ mitigation technology each month.
  • The PQTip of the month. This feature will provide our readers with brief tips regarding PQ best engineering practices.
  • The PQChallengeQuestion of the month. This feature will challenge our readers with challenging PQ questions relating to data management, Electrotek software products, customer investigations, monitoring, compatibility and more.
  • Announcement of new features on our website: https://www.electrotek.com/ under PQInternet including new PQ calculators, services and much more.
  • Instructional information under a section called PQInfo helping our readers learn how to document PQ problems. The first newsletter will feature How to Write a PQ Case Study.

Other useful information will be included in the PQWire. Customers are encouraged to request specific information be included in our newsletter ... read more

Power Quality Training

Education, the most important aspect of PQ, remains at the top of Electrotek’s list for our customers. No one is exempt from continued learning about PQ—experts, professors, teachers, engineers, technicians, managers, customers, etc. PQ is a growing topic of extreme importance as long as facilities and equipment are powered using electrical conductors.

With Electrotek’s expertise in all things PQ, we offer the broadest range of PQ training topics—in-person and e-Learning—in the entire industry. Our topics begin at Basic Power Quality to advanced PQ topics including Use of Neuro Networks in PQ Modeling and Simulations. Electrotek has been providing PQ training for over 30 years. Our PQ training topics are designed to teach any type of student at any level, making full use of hands-on experiments in our PQ Training Center. Our training center is designed to provide a spacious and quiet classroom for one or two students up to 30.

Utilities, manufacturers, building designers, end users, and other interested in PQ training should carefully review our PQ Training Programs to determine the best method of training—in-person, e-Learning with an Electrotek moderator or e-Learning self-paced. All of our training programs quality for Continuing Education Units (CEUs) through blank. Our training programs are designed to teach any individual about PQ monitoring, PQ customer facility investigations, PQ emissions, PQ immunity, PQ standards and more.

One of our training programs designed specifically for electrical contractors—PQ for Electrical Contractors—teaches electricians and their assistants how to install a PQ monitor, how to engage in customer PQ investigations at facilities and how to begin reading PQ data including disturbances. This course also teaches the student how to use specific types of PQ software associated with setting up, adjusting thresholds and downloading data from PQ monitors.... read more

Power Quality Standards

One areas in PQ with growing activity is PQ standards. An industry leader in the development of PQ standards, Electrotek has played a key role in developing standards for the IEEE and IEC. These are two standards development organizations serving the US and international customers together. Electrotek has been involved with PQ standards development for over 30 years.

PQ standards are critical to the growing PQ industry regarding product testing, standard terms and definitions, basic standards, use of monitors and more. Electrotek engineers have been the chair or vice chair of the following IEEE committees:

  • IEEE Power Quality Standards Coordinating Committee (IEEE SCC-22)
  • IEEE Power & Energy Society (PES) Transmission & Distribution Committee
  • IEEE PES Power Quality Subcommittee
  • IEEE PES Distribution Subcommittee

Electrotek engineers chaired the IEEE working groups that developed the following standards:

  • IEEE Standard 1159-1995: Recommended Practice on Monitoring Electric Power Quality
  • IEEE Standard 1159.3-2003: Recommended Practice for the Transfer of Power Quality Data (PQDIF)
  • IEEE Standard 1409-2012: Guide for Application of Power Electronics for Power Quality Improvement on Distribution Systems Rated 1 kV through 38 kV
  • IEEE Standard 1564-2014: Guide for Voltage Sag Indices

Electrotek represents the United States as a technical expert in three IEC subcommittees:

  • IEC Technical Committee 77A, Working Group 9 – Defines requirements for IEC 61000-4-30 Class and Class S monitors – Dan Sabin
  • IEC Technical Committee 85 Working Group 20 – Defines the tests for Class A and Class S monitors – Dan Sabin
  • IEC Technical Committee 77A, Working Group 6 – Low-Frequency Immunity Tests – Philip Keebler

Electrotek is constantly on the watch for engagement in the development of new standards including product standards, method standards and limit standards... read more

PQ Reference Books & Reviews

As published authors of several books on PQ, Electrotek recognizes that new books on PQ a wide variety of PQ topics are frequently being introduced into the industry. Electrotek is engaged in the review of PQ reference books, text books and engineering books. Electrotek is committed to publishing a book review each quarter on this website under this section.

A list of PQ reference books, text books and engineering books on PQ is also available here.... read more